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basic information about computer in 2018

The computer word is composed of the word "compute" of the English, which means "compute", which is why it is also called a calculator or computer. It was invented for calculation, in the old time computers were used only for calculation, but nowadays it's used to create documents, e-mail, listening and viewing audio and video, play games, along with database preparation. And being done in many things.
Just like in banks, in educational institutions, in offices, in homes, in shops, computer is being used extensively, computer only works which we say to do it i.e. only he follows the command Those who are already inserted inside the computer do not have the ability to think within it, the person who runs the computer is called a user, and the person who creates a program for Computer is a programmer Is called.

basic information about computer in 2018
computer information

Parts of the computer system

We can mainly divide the computer into two parts - hardware and software

Hardware - The physical, touchable, and tangible parts of the computer are called hardware. The parts that you can see can be touched by those parts that fall into this category. All the parts that connect together and create a computer.
Part of the computer system
Input Unit:
             Accepts computer programs and data to solve any problem. The tips available for program descriptions and data entry in the computer are known as investment units.- Key Board, Floppy Disk

Output unit
            Like the investment unit, an output unit is a tool for communication between machines and machines. They are used to write the conclusions obtained from the computer and present those conclusions in human language. Some normal output devices - monitors, printers.

Central Processing Unit, CPU (Central processing unit, CPU)
            The main part of a computer is the CPU. It reads, interprets, controls and computes them to implement these instructions. It comprises two separate sub-units.
                     Control unit (CU)
                     Semantic / Logic Unit (ALU)
Control unit: This computer operates the entire process. It reads the program from memory. Explains them and gives instructions accordingly to finish the desired action in ALU and memory. Coordination of all operations in the computer and sharing information/data for input and output devices is the responsibility of the control unit. It brings instructions from main memory and sends corresponding instructions to ALU.
Arithmetic Logic Unit
     This unit is used in mathematical and logical processing. In Central Arithmetic-Logic and Control Unit, various types of sub-units and special purpose circuits such as register, counter, address, etc. are included. The register is a high-speed storage circuit that is used as a workspace for temporary storage of instructions during the operation of the control and arithmetic-retake unit. Functions, numbers and capabilities of registers and other units in the central processing unit depending on the internal structure of each objective computer.


Memory unit
      Memory is an important part of every computer. If it does not, then the job becomes impossible. It is used to store instructions and data. In the memory, the information bit is collected as an archive. The bit is a word made up of binary digits. The value of a bit can be either 0 or 1. Although the bit memory is a unit, it is not used to measure memory. The reason for this is to be small. Some bits are used to measure the memory. The group of eight bits is called a byte. The group of some bytes is called Word. Whatever information the computer stores is only in 0 or 1. Memory can mainly be divided into two parts
(1) Primary / internal / main memory
(2) Secondary / External Memory

Main Memory: The main memory includes tools used to store computing. This main memory is used to store intermediate and final both conclusions. Generally, it is of two types-
(A) Random Access Memory
(I) ROM (ROM) Read-only Memory

RAM (RAM) Random Access Memory

        RAM has a simple meaning - Random Access Memory, that is the memory that keeps collecting data and programs in the computer. The main difference between RAM and Rome is that both reading and writing can be in the same form. This type of memory is also called volatile memory because if the power flow stops while writing, its underwriter automatically goes.
     The speed of RAM is much higher than that of Rome. This is the reason that RAM is used as a mirror of the BIOS ROM, which can increase the capacity of the computer. The main operating memory of a RAM computer is called memory. The order of the CPU is executed by the RAM. With the implementation of any order, it is necessary to load the software related to the software. ROM speed is high and it is cost-effective as per the other memory. All the necessary information is stored in RAM which we can reclaim in a tenth of the microsecond.
       Information collected in RAM can be ACCESS and can be read and written again. We can also call RAM, a group of registers which has an address for each register. In RAM, the program is stored in the computer language.

ROM (ROM) Read-only Memory
     This is an important part of computer memory. It is also called Read Only Memory. It is used to store basic commands. Also called Basic Input Output System (BIOS). The BIOS is used to be used by the computer. In Rome, the information is stored on the computer chip as a hardwired Electronic Circuit. Writing the data in the ROM is not possible again when it is connected to the computer online. These can be read-only. Rome itself has stable memory

EPROM (ERASABLE PROGRAMMABLE READ ONLY MEMORY)
    As we read the information in Rome read and can not be written, EPROM is a typical example of ROM in which we can erase the information and rewrite it. Thus, the smallest portion of the glass on the top surface in Rome, passing through which ultraviolet radiation erases its memory at certain times. After which it can be programmed again. We can also call EPROM (ultraviolet PROM) or EA PROM (electrically alterable PROM). EPROM is highly useful in comparison to Rome. - Example - Hard disk, floppy disk, and magnetic tape.

Software 
     Software used for any kind of control is called software. The group of instructions is called a program. The software is required to use computer hardware. Hardware + software = computer.
Basically, there are two types of software. - System software and application software.

System software 
       A system is a group of software programs that control the computer system and data processing process and provide shelter to them. It includes the following programs -
Programming Languages - Programming Languages - In order to give instructions on the procedural steps taken by the computer, there are languages used in the program writing. For the purpose of writing programs, the programmer must have information from one or more of these languages. By then you can make a software. The use of every language has its standard and specific rules. Some languages whose names like Pascal, Fortran, C, Java etc.

Language processor - Languages processor - A program that accepts instruction in a language and creates its equivalent instruction in another language. The subsets of instructions are called Sabarudin.

Operating System - Programs that are a contemporary system that governs the processes of a computer, controls the input/output function of the computer system and gives shelter to various services. Such as DOS, Windows, UNIX etc.

Application Software
         Application software is written for various applications. These programs generally address specific and unique applications or problems. Application software are programs that are designed by a user for a particular purpose. Examples - To create pay bills, programs for banking work, programs for inventory control, word version - Microsoft, accounting - telly, publication - page maker, spreadsheet - Microsoft excel, data processing - Microsoft access.



History of computer

In the 19th century, a mathematics professor 'Charles Babes' introduced the computer term

First Generation Of Computer Year: 1940-1956

The vacuum tube was used to control and transmit electronic signals in this generation computer, the first computer was realized by these, so much computer was built.
The vacuum tube used in this was very large, due to which it occupied a lot of space. Together they used to produce a lot of heat while using them. The possibility of broken feet and malfunction were very high and the ability to calculate it was also very low.
The built-in computer is Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC), EDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Computer), UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer) etc.

Second Generation Of Computer Year: 1956-1963


Transistors were invented in the second generation of computers and it was now used in computers. These transistors were more capable than vacuum tube and their size was also small compared to them.
Its capability was high and currently the pc accustomed work quicker. Now the computer started to become smaller than the first generation and started working fast.

  The third generation of computer year: 1963-1971


Incorporated circuits used to be utilized in this current age's PC, which was substantially littler than the transistor. The limit of this age was enormously expanded and now with one PC, numerous PCs could be utilized at the same time. For the situation, a little-incorporated circuit made of silicon chip was utilized, so its size was currently considerably littler. Now the generation of computers used to be used in homes also.
The speed of this generation was from microseconds to nano sec seconds, mainly due to the use of integrated circuits.

Computer Fourth Generation Of Computer (1971-present)


Today we all mostly use this generation computer. By using a microprocessor in this generation, its size has become quite small, which we can take with us anywhere.
In this type of computer, thousands of transistors can be combined together with the help of VSLI and its speed can be made very fast.
We use the same computer for our generation as a personal computer now. This generation is considered to be the biggest revolution in the field of computer.

Computer Fifth Generation Of Computer (the future)


The next generation of computers that are currently working and some of the success has been achieved, computers based on Artificial Intelligence. This type of computer will be able to do all the work itself.


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